FFD (Fuel Fluorescence Detector)
The FFD detects the fluorescence produced by the aromatic hydrocarbons when excited by an ultraviolet light source. Team used static cone penetration (CPT), the FFD significantly reduces the time needed to detect and delineate the extent of spills or leaking fuel storage tanks.
Characteristics of the FFD
- Double photomultiplier tube (PMT). The placement of the PMT at the bottom of the probe eliminates the signal attenuation through fiber optics, allowing to detect weakly fluorescent compounds at any depth below the surface of soil. Dual PMT are tuned to differentwavelengths that provides the ability to differentiate between light and heavy contaminants.
- Sapphire window
- The FFD is used with standard CPT cable
- It is used with normal rods 36 mm used with CPT
Continuous measurement. FFD provides a continuous output and real-time fluorescence throughout the depth of the investigation. This information can be viewed graphically in real time with the standard system of CPT data acquisition as the cone moves, providing a much more complete and easy-contaminated pen traditional methods of sampling time. With multiple FFD profiles in a three-dimensional models can be created from the pollution plume
Graph of three linear profiles through a plume of hydrocarbon contamination. The data from each of the probes shown in Figure 1 were in the hands of customers within 15 minutes after the completion of the CPT
In the above figures we can see an exploded diagram of the FFD installed on the piezocone